Tropical and subtropical dry broadleaf forests-These are alternately known as the tropical and subtropical dry forest biome or the tropical and subtropical deciduous forest biome. In some locales these are also called monsoon forests, and they tend to merge into savannas.
- Atlantic dry forests
Tropical and subtropical grasslands, savannas, and shrublands-These are a grassland biome located in semi-arid to semi-humid climate regions of subtropical and tropical latitudes. Grasslands are dominated by grass and other herbaceous plants. Savannas are grasslands with scattered trees. Shrublands are dominated by woody or herbaceous shrubs.
- Campos Rupestres montane savanna
Mangroves-These generally consist of trees and shrubs that grow in saline (brackish) coastal habitats in the tropics and subtropics.
- Bahia mangroves
- Ilha Grande mangroves
- Rio Piranhas mangroves
- Rio São Francisco mangroves
Logging, agriculture, and the clearing of forests to create pastureland create jobs but also threaten the forest's longevity. In the south, Asian water buffalo are raised on land cleared from the forest. The Nature Conservancy and affiliated conservation organizations are working to help local residents balance their economic activities with improved forest management. Sustainable development activities may include ecotourism, organic agriculture, ornamental and medicinal plant production, and craft production for the growing number of tourists. New employment opportunities include working as park wardens and in reforestation efforts, carbon monitoring, and infrastructure development.
Looking to the future
Two of the world's largest cities, Rio de Janeiro and Sao Paulo, lie within the Atlantic Forest ecoregion. Protecting biodiversity while meeting the needs of growing metropolitan and rural populations is a serious challenge. Logging, agricultural expansion, and associated road building threaten the forests in this region, while habitat loss, hunting, and the wildlife trade threaten many species.
The Nature Conservancy, American Electric Power, General Motors, Texaco, and Sociedade de Pesquisa em Vida Selvagem e Educação Ambiental (SPVS) are jointly sponsoring the Guaraqueçaba Climate Action Project aimed at protecting and restoring over 30 million acres of threatened and degraded rainforest in southeastern Brazil. By abating the accumulation of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere, the project is expected to have a positive influence in mitigating global climate change.
The probability of species extinctions is high without intensive conservation efforts. Relatively extensive but generally unprotected blocks of forest remain in the southern portion of the eco-region, particularly in Argentina and Paraguay.
- Conservation International. Biodiversity Hotspots: Atlantic Forest. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- Galindo Leal, Carlos, and Ibsen de Gusmão Câmara. 2003. The Atlantic Forest of South America: Biodiversity Status, Threats, and Outlook. State of the hotspots. Washington: Island Press. ISBN 9781559639897.
- The Nature Conservancy. The Places We Work: The Atlantic Forest of Brazil. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- UNESCO World Heritage Centre. UNESCO: Discovery Coast Atlantic Forest Reserves. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
- World Wildlife Fund. Atlantic Forests-A Global Ecoregion. Retrieved January 7, 2009.
All links retrieved April 23, 2016.
- Amazon Institute
- Atlantic Forest The Nature Conservancy
- Atlantic Forest Foundation