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Philosophy of science


Some of the major contributors to philosophy of science

  • A. J. Ayer
  • Alfred North Whitehead
  • Aristotle
  • Auguste Comte
  • Bas. G. van Fraassen
  • Bertrand Russell
  • C.I. Lewis
  • Carl G. Hempel
  • Charles Peirce
  • David Hume
  • Edmund Husserl
  • Empedocles
  • Ernst Mach
  • Galileo Galilei
  • Gaston Bachelard
  • Hans Reichenbach
  • Herbert Feigl
  • Hilary Putnam
  • Immanuel Kant
  • Imre Lakatos
  • Isaac Newton
  • Larry Laudan
  • Martin Heidegger
  • Michael Polanyi
  • Michel Callon
  • Moritz Schlick
  • Nelson Goodman
  • Otto Neurath
  • Paul Feyerabend
  • René Descartes
  • Roger Bacon
  • Rudolph Carnap
  • Sir Francis Bacon
  • Karl Popper
  • Thomas Kuhn
  • Willard Van Orman Quine

Philosophy of the Sciences

  • Philosophy of chemistry
  • Philosophy of biology
  • Philosophy of Physics

Philosophy of science topics

  • Causation
  • Curve fitting
  • Demarcation problem
  • Dualism
  • Empiricism
  • Faith and rationality
  • Free will and determinism
  • Logical Positivism
  • Philosophy of chemistry
  • Philosophy of biology
  • Philosophy of mathematics
  • Philosophy of physics
  • Philosophy of space and time
  • Problem of the criterion
  • Simplicity
  • Uniformitarianism (science)
  • Unobservables
  • Vienna Circle


  1. ↑ Dennett, Daniel. 1995. Darwin's Dangerous Idea. New York: Simon & Schuster. Reprint edition, 1996. ISBN 068482471X
  2. ↑ Harré, R. 1967. “History of Philosophy of Science,” in Encyclopedia of Philosophy, edited by Paul Edwards. Vol. 6, p. 289.
  3. ↑ Carnap, Rudolf. "Empiricism, Semantics, and Ontology." Revue Internationale de Philosophy IV (1950): p. 20.
  4. ↑ Reese, William L. Dictionary of Philosophy and Religion: Eastern and Western Thought. New and enlarged edition, 1996. p. 596. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press International. ISBN 0391038648
  5. ↑ Reese.
  6. ↑ Reese.
  7. ↑ “Logical Positivism” in Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Edited by Paul Edwards. Vol. 5, p. 56.
  8. ↑ Popper, Karl R. 1976. Unended Quest: An Intellectual Autobiography. Revised edition, 1982. La Salle, IL: Open Court Publishing Company. ISBN 0875483437
  9. ↑ Vienna, 1934. It was not translated and published in English until the mid-1950s, when it appeared as The Logic of Scientific Discovery. New paperback edition, 2002. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415278449
  10. ↑ Newall, Paul. “Lakatos and the Demarcation Problem.”
  11. ↑ Kuhn, Thomas S. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Third edition, 1996. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226458083
  12. ↑ Kuhn 1962, 91.
  13. ↑ Kuhn 1962, 10.
  14. ↑ George, Alexander. “What's wrong with intelligent design and with its critics.”
  15. ↑ Laudan, Larry. 1990. Science and Relativism: Some Key Controversies in the Philosophy of Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226469492
  16. ↑ Laudan, Larry. “The Demise of the Demarcation Problem,” in Michael Ruse (ed.). 1996. But is it Science?: The Philosophical Question in the Creation/Evolution Controversy. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books. ISBN 1573920878

Abbreviated Bibliography

There is an enormous literature in the field of philosophy of science, running to a thousand titles or more. Here we can list only some secondary studies as well as a very few of the notable primary texts.

  • Boyd, R.; Paul Gasper; J. D. Trout (eds.). 1991. The Philosophy of Science. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. ISBN 0262521563
  • Glazebrook, Trish. 2000. Heidegger's Philosophy of Science. Bronx, NY: Fordham University Press. ISBN 0823220389
  • Gutting, Gary. 2004. Continental Philosophy of Science. Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0631236090
  • Harré, R. 1972. The Philosophies of Science: An Introductory Survey. London: Oxford University Press.
  • Kearney, R. 1994. Routledge History of Philosophy. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415056292
  • Klemke, E. et. al. (ed.). 1998. Introductory Readings in The Philosophy of Science. Amherst, NY: Prometheus Books.
  • Kuhn, Thomas S. 1962. The Structure of Scientific Revolutions. Third edition, 1996. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226458083
  • Kuipers, T. A. F. 2001. Structures in Science. An Advanced Textbook in Neo-Classical Philosophy of Science. New York: Synthese Library, Springer. ISBN 0792371178
  • Ladyman, J. 2002. Understanding Philosophy of Science. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415221579
  • Lakatos, Imre, and Alan Musgrave (eds.). 1970. Criticism and the Growth of Knowledge. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0521096235
Essential to the debate between Kuhn and Popper and his followers.
  • Losee, John. 1972. A Historical Introduction to The Philosophy of Science. Fourth edition, 2001. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198700555
  • Niiniluoto, Ilkka. 2002. Critical Scientific Realism. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0199251614
  • Pap, Arthur. 1962. An Introduction to the Philosophy of Science. Glencoe, I.L: The Free Press.
  • Papineau, David (ed.). 1996. The Philosophy of Science. Oxford Readings in Philosophy. New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 0198751656
  • Rorty, Richard (ed.). 1967. The Linguistic Turn: Essays in Philosophical Method. Reprint edition, 1992. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. ISBN 0226725693
This book is an edited collection of essays by others, with an excellent and incisive introduction by Rorty. It also has a massive bibliography of more than 900 items.
  • Rosenberg, Alex. 2000. Philosophy of Science: A Contemporary Introduction. Second edition, 2005. London: Routledge. ISBN 0415343178
  • Salmon, M. H. et al. 1999. Introduction to the Philosophy of Science: A Text By Members of the Department of the History and Philosophy of Science of the University of Pittsburgh. Indianapolis, IN: Hackett Publishing Company. ISBN 0872204502
  • Snyder, Paul. 1977. Toward One Science: The Convergence of Traditions. Palgrave MacMillian. ISBN 0312810121
  • Suppe, Frederick (ed.). 1977. The Structure of Scientific Theories, Second Edition. Second edition, 1979. Urbana, IL: University of Illinois Press. ISBN 0252006348
Especially worthwhile because it summarizes the work of different theories up to that time, has many articles by leaders in the field, and has a large bibliography of some 800 or more items.
  • Newton-Smith, W. H. (ed.). 2001. A Companion To The Philosophy of Science. Blackwell Companions to Philosophy. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers. ISBN 0631230203
  • Van Fraassen, Bas C. 1980. The Scientific Image. Oxford: Clarendon Press. ISBN 0198244274

External links

All links retrieved March 25, 2019.

  • PhilSci Archive.
  • Science and Knowledge One view on the philosophy of science

General Philosophy Sources