1. ↑ One of the major sources for depictions of these ritual practices comes from Adam of Bremen, an eleventh century cleric, chronicler, and missionary. Described in Dubois, 60; Munch, 8-9. However, given the source's definite "anti-pagan" stance, it is perhaps advisable to approach these statements with a critical mindset.
  2. ↑ These linguistic roots are also the source of the Anglo-Saxon Woden.
  3. ↑ Lindow, 6-8. Though some scholars have argued against the homogenizing effect of grouping these various traditions together under the rubric of “Norse Mythology,” the profoundly exploratory/nomadic nature of Viking society tends to overrule such objections. As Thomas DuBois cogently argues, “whatever else we may say about the various peoples of the North during the Viking Age, then, we cannot claim that they were isolated from or ignorant of their neighbors… . As religion expresses the concerns and experiences of its human adherents, so it changes continually in response to cultural, economic, and environmental factors. Ideas and ideals passed between communities with frequency and regularity, leading to and interdependent and intercultural region with broad commonalities of religion and worldview.” (27-28).
  4. ↑ More specifically, Georges Dumézil, one of the foremost authorities on the Norse tradition and a noted comparitivist, argues quite persuasively that the Aesir / Vanir distinction is a component of a larger triadic division (between ruler gods, warrior gods, and gods of agriculture and commerce) that is echoed among the Indo-European cosmologies (from Vedic India, through Rome and into the Germanic North). Further, he notes that this distinction conforms to patterns of social organization found in all of these societies. See Georges Dumézil's Gods of the Ancient Northmen (especially pgs. xi-xiii, 3-25) for more details.
  5. ↑ Note: This connection with divine wisdom led many Roman philosophers and chroniclers, from Caesar and Tacitus on, to relate Odin with Mercury/Apollo. See Dumézil, 19.
  6. ↑ Turville-Petre, 63.
  7. ↑ A reference to Yggdrasil, the famed World Tree of Norse mythology. See Lindow, 248.
  8. ↑ Hávamál (strs. 138-45), quoted in Turville-Petre, 42.
  9. ↑ Dumézil, 42.
  10. ↑ See Dumézil, 19, and also Julius Caesar's de bello Gallico (6.17.1), which mentions "Mercury" as the chief god of Celtic religion.
  11. ↑ Rundkvist, Martin. 2003. Post festum. Solid gold in the Vendel Period. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
  12. ↑ Paraphrase from the Prose Edda as translated by Arthur Brodeur, p. 20.
  13. ↑ DuBois, 43, 60; Turville-Pietrie, 50-55, 64-70.
  14. ↑ Also the name of a river, one of the Élivágar.
  15. ↑ Also an assumed name used by Gylfi.
  16. ↑ "Geldnir" in other manuscripts.
  17. ↑ Also the name of a brother of Loki.
  18. ↑ The meaning is disputed according to Lindow but Larrington gives the translation "Sage" in the Poetic Edda.
  19. ↑ "Sidhofr" in other manuscripts.
  20. ↑ In plural, sigtívar refers to the gods in many Eddic poems.
  21. ↑ This table reproduced (with some amendments) from Wikipedia. Also, many of these names are attested to in the Poetic Edda's Skáldskaparmál (II), (97-103 in the Brodeur edition).


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