- ↑ One of the major sources for depictions of these ritual practices comes from Adam of Bremen, an eleventh century cleric, chronicler, and missionary. Described in Dubois, 60; Munch, 8-9. However, given the source's definite "anti-pagan" stance, it is perhaps advisable to approach these statements with a critical mindset.
- ↑ These linguistic roots are also the source of the Anglo-Saxon Woden.
- ↑ Lindow, 6-8. Though some scholars have argued against the homogenizing effect of grouping these various traditions together under the rubric of “Norse Mythology,” the profoundly exploratory/nomadic nature of Viking society tends to overrule such objections. As Thomas DuBois cogently argues, “whatever else we may say about the various peoples of the North during the Viking Age, then, we cannot claim that they were isolated from or ignorant of their neighbors… . As religion expresses the concerns and experiences of its human adherents, so it changes continually in response to cultural, economic, and environmental factors. Ideas and ideals passed between communities with frequency and regularity, leading to and interdependent and intercultural region with broad commonalities of religion and worldview.” (27-28).
- ↑ More specifically, Georges Dumézil, one of the foremost authorities on the Norse tradition and a noted comparitivist, argues quite persuasively that the Aesir / Vanir distinction is a component of a larger triadic division (between ruler gods, warrior gods, and gods of agriculture and commerce) that is echoed among the Indo-European cosmologies (from Vedic India, through Rome and into the Germanic North). Further, he notes that this distinction conforms to patterns of social organization found in all of these societies. See Georges Dumézil's Gods of the Ancient Northmen (especially pgs. xi-xiii, 3-25) for more details.
- ↑ Note: This connection with divine wisdom led many Roman philosophers and chroniclers, from Caesar and Tacitus on, to relate Odin with Mercury/Apollo. See Dumézil, 19.
- ↑ Turville-Petre, 63.
- ↑ A reference to Yggdrasil, the famed World Tree of Norse mythology. See Lindow, 248.
- ↑ Hávamál (strs. 138-45), quoted in Turville-Petre, 42.
- ↑ Dumézil, 42.
- ↑ See Dumézil, 19, and also Julius Caesar's de bello Gallico (6.17.1), which mentions "Mercury" as the chief god of Celtic religion.
- ↑ Rundkvist, Martin. 2003. Post festum. Solid gold in the Vendel Period. Retrieved March 22, 2007.
- ↑ Paraphrase from the Prose Edda as translated by Arthur Brodeur, p. 20.
- ↑ DuBois, 43, 60; Turville-Pietrie, 50-55, 64-70.
- ↑ Also the name of a river, one of the Élivágar.
- ↑ Also an assumed name used by Gylfi.
- ↑ "Geldnir" in other manuscripts.
- ↑ Also the name of a brother of Loki.
- ↑ The meaning is disputed according to Lindow but Larrington gives the translation "Sage" in the Poetic Edda.
- ↑ "Sidhofr" in other manuscripts.
- ↑ In plural, sigtívar refers to the gods in many Eddic poems.
- ↑ This table reproduced (with some amendments) from Wikipedia. Also, many of these names are attested to in the Poetic Edda's Skáldskaparmál (II), (97-103 in the Brodeur edition).
- DuBois, Thomas A. Nordic Religions in the Viking Age. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999. ISBN 0812217144
- Dumézil, Georges. Gods of the Ancient Northmen. Edited by Einar Haugen; Introduction by C. Scott Littleton and Udo Strutynski. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1973. ISBN 0520020448
- Lindow, John. Handbook of Norse mythology. Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO, 2001. ISBN 1576072177
- Munch, P. A. Norse Mythology: Legends of Gods and Heroes. In the revision of Magnus Olsen; translated from the Norwegian by Sigurd Bernhard Hustvedt. New York: The American-Scandinavian foundation; London: H. Milford, Oxford University Press, 1926.
- Orchard, Andy. Cassell's Dictionary of Norse Myth and Legend. London: Cassell; New York: Sterling Pub. Co., 2002. ISBN 0304363855
- Sturlson, Snorri. The Prose Edda of Snorri Sturluson: Tales from Norse Mythology. Introduced by Sigurdur Nordal; Selected and translated by Jean I. Young. Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 1954. ISBN 0520012313
- Snorri Sturluson. The Prose Edda. Translated from the Icelandic and with an introduction by Arthur Gilchrist Brodeur. New York: American-Scandinavian foundation, 1916.
- Turville-Petre, Gabriel. Myth and Religion of the North: The Religion of Ancient Scandinavia. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1964.